Safety of structures/buildings/monuments are of utmost importance during construction activities, for long term monitoring and while restoration of historical/critical monuments.
The application note "Online Structural Monitoring for Safety" discusses about the role of geotechnical instrumentation in structure monitoring along with details of instrumentation used and typical instrumentation scheme. It discusses in detail the online structural monitoring system i.e. Web Data Monitoring Services provided by Encardio-rite. The data observed from the geotechnical instrumentation plays a vital role in providing verification of design assumptions, manage the construction in a safe and controlled manner, safeguarding existing buildings and other structures and monitoring long term behaviour.
The application note also includes few case studies of projects in which Encardio-rite has provided instrumentation for structures/high rise building/historical monument/building foundations, etc. "
The mass rapid transit system (MRTS) forms the very backbone of transportation infrastructure of any bustling metropolitan city in the world. The underground metro is a vital constituent of (even synonymous to) a MRTS. Generally underground metro projects have a comprehensive instrumentation and monitoring program, more so during the construction phases, when there are population, buildings or other structures of interest in the vicinity of the underground construction activities. Instrumentation monitoring in general, is carried out at strategic locations selected along the entire length of the underground metro corridor tunnel alignments and station boxes. Its scope includes: monitoring of the structures under construction together with the ground, buildings and other facilities within the predicted zone of influence.
The destruction caused by landslides can be drastically reduced by implementing a good prediction and forewarning monitoring system coupled with effective efforts to control and mitigate landslides. Online instrumentation of landslide areas provides pre-warning and alarms such that corrective action by soil consolidation, retaining walls or other means is taken in time and if not possible, evacuation ordered before imminent disaster. Encardio-rite offers a simple to use, cost effective complete solution to the user for online monitoring of landslide prone areas. This includes supply, installation, calibration, maintenance, cloud based web monitoring service to the customer for retrieving sensors data from the data logger, archiving the retrieved data in a SQL database, processing the data and presenting the processed data in tabular and most suitable graphical forms for easy interpretation of logged data.
The application note "Instrumentation for online monitoring of landslides" discusses about online monitoring solutions for monitoring slopes as well as of the structures within zone of danger. The application note gives an idea on the instruments used for online monitoring along with a typical instrumentation scheme. Details of online structural monitoring system i.e. Web Data Monitoring Services, sample graphical presentation of data as viewed on web has also been included."
Landslides, denudation and other associated processes of erosion have to be accepted as part of the natural process. They are intractable being a function of gravity and time. They play an essential role in the synchrony by which uplifting continents are continually worn down, their sediments swept away and deposited somewhere else to start anew. They fit well into the perpetual cycle of creation and destruction. During rainy season and sometimes even otherwise, tons of earth gives away down steep slopes causing devastating landslides. Instrumentation pre-warns us of these imminent disasters. By implementing a good prediction and forewarning system coupled with effective efforts to control and mitigate landslides, destruction caused by landslides can be reduced by more than 75 % of what would normally occur.
Groundwater is a critically important global resource. It requires careful monitoring, protection and management. Monitoring of ground water level (water table) and its recharge has become a mandatory requirement at several places all over the world. Encardio-rite manufactures a range of instruments for ground water monitoring ranging from the simple to the most sophisticated. Systems for monitoring ground water either manually or automatically are both available from Encardio-rite.
Deep excavation has two main efffects. Firstly, removal of soil results in decrease of weight/stress on soil below the excavation. Secondly, it results in loss of lateral support for soil around the excavation. Horizontal and vertical displacement that consequently occcurs has to be kept with in acceptable limits; otherwise damage to any buildings, roads and underground facilities in the zone of influence will occcur.
Deep excavations are instrumented before start of any excavation. Instrumentation is required for controlling behavior of diaphragm wall and surrounding facilities.
Instrumentation of bridges is done to verify design parameters, evaluate performance of new technologies used in bridge construction, verify and control the construction process and for subsequent performance monitoring. Well instrumented bridges can alert responsible authorities to approaching failure so that preventive measures can be initiated. Choice of proper sensor types, technology, measurement range and their location on the bridge is very important to optimise costs and to extract full benefits of instrumentation. This paper describes the different bridge parameters which need to be monitored and the types of sensors available for monitoring them. The advantages of using vibrating wire type sensors, where available, is explained. A typical bridge instrumentation scheme is described to give an idea of the number of sensors and their location, cabling arrangement, and data acquisition system required to instrument a typical multi-span box section road bridge over a river.
Settlement may occur when constructing projects such as highway embankments, dams, large storage areas, tanks, airport runways or buildings on soft compressible soil, due to the consolidation of soil under the superimposed load. To avoid serious and potentially expensive problems due to such settlements, construction of a facility on top of a soft soil will normally be delayed until there is assurance that it will not be damaged by settlement that occurs during subsequent consolidation. If the predicted delay is not acceptable the time required for consolidation can be reduced by using consolidation techniques like surcharging and/or installation of vertical drains. This paper discusses the role of instrumentation in determining initial site condition and for monitoring the consolidation process. A typical case study of the Kandla sea port has been presented. The role of piezometer, vertical settlement devices, inclinometer system and the significance of their data in monitoring the consolidation process has been discussed.
Seepage of water through, around or under a dam is expected in all embankment dams and even in concrete dams. For an embankment dam, seepage monitoring is probably the single most important form of performance observation. Some quantity of seepage is unavoidable and if not properly channeled, can be a threat to the dam. Thus, the quantity of seepage, the location of seepage path and the velocity of seepage water are of great concern in analyzing the structural behavior of a dam. This paper discusses the importance of seepage monitoring and describes how to take the measurements with formulae and examples. The quantity of seepage entering a seepage collection system is normally directly related to the level of the water in the reservoir. Some of the methods used for measuring seepage, like calibrated catch container, flow meter, Parshall flumes, weir are also discussed in the paper. The weir method is described in detail.